DIY FTTx projects design: Architectures

Fiber-to-the-x (FTTx) projects architectures and solution

FTTx Topology:

  The FTTx architectures is widely understood as numbers of fiber network technologies, include Home (FTTH), Premise (FTTP), Curb (FTTC), Building (FTTB), Home (FTTH), User (FTTU) and Node (FTTN). Let’s begin by describing these network architectures and topologies.




  FTTN / FTTLA (fiber-to-the-node, -neighborhood, or -last-amplifier): Fiber is terminated in a street cabinet, possibly miles away from the customer premises, with the final connections being copper. FTTN is often an interim step toward full FTTH and is typically used to deliver ‘advanced’ triple-play telecommunications services.


  FTTC / FTTK (fiber-to-the-curb/kerb, -closet, or -cabinet): This is very similar to FTTN, but the street cabinet or pole is closer to the user’s premises, typically within 1,000 feet (300 m), within range for high- bandwidth copper technologies such as wired ethernet or IEEE 1901 power line networking and wireless Wi-Fi technology. FTTC is occasionally ambiguously called FTTP (fiber-to-the-pole), leading to confusion with the distinct fiber-to-the-premises system.

FTTX architectures

FTTX architectures


  FTTdp (Fibre To The Distribution Point) This is very similar to FTTC / FTTN but is one-step close again moving the end of the fiber to within meters of the boundary of the customers premises in last junction possible junction box known as the “distribution point” this allows for near-gigabit speeds.


  FTTP (fiber-to-the-premises): This term is used either as a blanket term for both FTTH and FTTB, or where the fiber network includes both homes and small businesses.

  • FTTB (fiber-to-the-building, -business, or -basement): Fiber reaches the boundary of the building, such as the basement in a multi-dwelling unit, with the final connection to the individual living space being made via alternative means, similar to the curb or pole technologies.
  • FTTH (fiber-to-the-home): Fiber reaches the boundary of the living space, such as a box on the outside wall of a home. Passive optical networks and point-to-point Ethernet are architectures that deliver triple-play services over FTTH networks directly from an operator’s central office(CO).
FTTH P2MP((point to multi-point) PON fiber solution

FTTH P2MP((point to multi-point) PON fiber solution


  FTTD (fiber-to-the-desktop): Fiber connection is installed from the main computer room to a terminal or fiber media converter near the user’s desk.


  FTTE / FTTZ (fiber-to-the-telecom-enclosure or fiber-to-the-zone) is a form of structured cabling typically used in enterprise local area networks, where fiber is used to link the main computer equipment room to an enclosure close to the desk or workstation. FTTE and FTTZ are not considered part of the FTTX group of technologies, despite the similarity in name.


  Moreover, FTTW (fiber to the wireless) have been added. Reasons is, today’s mobile device users depend on wireless connections for their laptops, smartphones and tablets. 

 So which one (architectures) would be our target today? 

For residential customers, we need to choose a architectures which have been developed to reduce the cost of installing high bandwidth services to the home. We recommend FTTH EPON and FTTH GPON solution.

EPON Solution

Data throughput capacity1.25Gbps on the downstream, 1.25Gbps on the upstream
Subscriber capacitySupports up to 32 users per tree with a recommended maximum
distance between the OLT and ONT of 20km
Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA)NTT, the largest EPON operator in the world, provides its customers with downstream and upstream speeds of between 30Mbps and
100Mbps. The speed varies depending on how many customers are
accessing the same PON simultaneously
Protocol supportedEthernet only
SummaryChampioned primarily by NTT, EPON currently enjoys higher volumes
and economies of scale than other PON variants.

GPON Solution

Data throughput capacityGPON customers share downstream speeds of up to 1.24Mbps or 2.48Mbps; the shared upstream speed is up to 622Mbps or 1.24Gbps.
Subscriber capacitySupports 32 users per tree at a recommended maximum distance
between the OLT and ONT of 20km. If serving 64 users (the maximum
GPON subscriber capacity) the distance between the OLT and ONT is
reduced to 12-15km if maximum throughput is to be maintained. If
the number of users drops to 16, the distance between the OLT and
the ONT can extend to 30km
Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA)The typical GPON benchmark is 2.5Gbps shared among 32 users. This can yield a ‘sustained rate’ of 80Mbps per subscriber
Protocol supportedATM, Ethernet, TDM
SummaryGaining momentum in North America and parts of Asia. As a relatively
new standard, GPON interoperability between different vendors’
equipment will be an issue in the short- to mid-term

  Summary speaking, FOT is sharing the principle of FTTh projects’ architectures design: “In any FTTX deployment, the goal of network planners is to build the most flexible and reliable system possible in the least amount of time and at the lowest possible cost.”

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