DIY FTTx projects design: cables & splitting

Cables & splitting design for PON Solutions

  A good design beforehand could easily avoid issues when implementing the FTTx projects. Certain considerations are very important when designing an FTTx PON solution.

FTTx Cables Design

FTTx Cabling Topology

FTTx Cabling Topology

Feeder Fiber Cable:

  – Feeder Cable connects the cable from the ODF in the central office to the splitter distribution cabinet in the LCP
  – Direct burial, duct, or aerial installation

Fiber Cable: ribbon laminate construction

Fiber Cable: ribbon laminate construction

Distribution Fiber Cable

  – For connection Splitter distribution point to fiber distribution point
  – Indoor or outdoor application 

Fiber Cable: full look

Fiber Cable: full look

Drop Cable:

  – The last-mile of the ODN, from the fiber distribution point to the user terminal
  – Direct burial, duct, or aerial installation

Fiber Cable: unarmoured type

Fiber Cable: unarmoured type

Splitting Design

  • a.The splitting architecture depends on user distribution, and service providing requirements
  • b. Decide between 1-stage splitting or 2-stage splitting
  • c. Consider if average splitting will be used. Generally in an EPON system PLC splitters are used for equal optical power division and FBT splitters for unequal optical power division.

  Here we have a comparison between these two splitter types:

ParametersPLC SplitterFBT Splitter
Wavelength Range (nm)1260~1650nmSingle/dual/triple window
Splitting RatioEqual divisionEqual or non-equal division
DimensionsSmallLarge size for multi-channel
Wavelength SensitivityLowHigh
CostLow splitting channel, high pricePrice is lower for small channel splitter

  We have the following splitting architectures:

  1. Distribution Splitting
  2. Aggregation Splitting
  3. Centralized Splitting

Distribution Splitting:

Distribution Splitting

Distribution Splitting

  Cascading Splitting (1 x 8 / 1x 4 or 1x 4 / 1x 8)

Placement:
  Located in LCP (Local Convergence Point) and NAP (Network Access Point)

Features:

  • Multi-point testing and maintenance
  • High optical loss
  • Low OLT PON port utilization rate
  • Complicated network structure, hard to maintain

Aggregation Splitting:

Aggregation Splitting

Aggregation Splitting

  Single Splitting (1 : 32)

Placement:
  LCP (Local Convergence Point)

Features:

  • Integrated link testing and user management
  • Low Optical loss
  • High OLT PON port utilization rate
  • Low cost for splitters
  • Simple network topology, easy to maintain

Centralized Splitting:

Centralized Splitting

Centralized Splitting

Placement:
  CO (Central Office)

Features:

  • Single point link testing and maintain
  • Low Optical loss
  • High OLT PON port utilization rate
  • Low cost for splitters
  • Dedicated cable for each house
  • Flexible topology
  • Huge infrastructure cost

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