FTTH optical splitter brief introduction


Optical splitter, also known as beam splitter, is one kind of integrated waveguide optical power distribution device based on a quartz substrate.
Similar to the coaxial cable transmission systems, an optical network system also need to split, distribute and couple the optical signal,therefore, which required the optical splitters.

A fiber splitter is one of the most important passive components in the whole FTTH network system.
As we know, ODN network system mainly includes 1:N plc splitters, owning following features:

  1. Worked as optical aggregation device; 
  2. Multiple inputs;
  3. and a plurality of outputs.
A Common PON Splitting Level Application

A Common PON Splitting Level Application

Summary speaking, splitter is particularly suitable for passive optical network (like EPON, GPON, BPON , etc.), which used to connect the central office and terminal equipment to finish optical signal splitter.

Classification of FTTH optical splitter

According to the principle, optical splitter can be divided into two kinds: fused taper (FBT SPLITTER0 and planar waveguide (PLC SPLITTER).

Principle of FTTH optical splitter splitting

Detail descriptions of Fused biconical taper (FBT SPLITTER) is like this:

  1. Step one, remove the optical fiber coating layer of two or more fiber cables, by a method of scrambling;
  2. Step two, heating and melted them at a high temperature;
  3. At the same time, stretching those fibers to both sides
  4. A special form of cone waveguide structure will be successfully formed at the end of the heating zone. 
  5. Finally, by modifying the angle of twist and fiber stretched length to different spectral ratio (1:N,N=2,4,8,16,32,64 etc).

Planar waveguide (PLC SPLITTER) is a micro-optical element products, using a photolithography technique, constructs the optical waveguide on the dielectric or a semiconductor substrate, to establish the split and distribution function.

FTTH optical splitter common specification

Fused biconical taper (FBT SPLITTER):

Operating wavelength, bandwidth, typical excess loss, insertion loss, polarization dependent loss, uniformity, direction, splitting ratio.

Planar waveguide (PLC SPLITTER):

Operating wavelength, insertion loss, uniformity, return loss, polarization dependent loss.

Advantages and Disadvantages of FTTH optical splitter

Advantages of Fused biconical taper:
low cost, raw materials (quartz plate, fiber optics, heat shrink tubing, stainless steel pipe, glue etc) is easy to obtain , the optical division ratio may need real-time monitoring, can be used for unequal splitting ratio.

Disadvantages of Fused biconical taper:

Loss of optical wavelength is sensitive to different wavelengths and need to use different devices according to different wavelengths,. Uniformity is poor, can not ensure uniform spectral, insertion loss fluctuate great when temperature changed.

Planar waveguide advantages:

Loss is not sensitive to transmission wavelength and suitable for different transmission wavelength, spectral uniformity, signal can be assigned to users averagely, compact structure, small size, multi-channel cost low. The more of channel, the lower of cost.

Planar waveguide Disadvantages:

Complex manufacture process, high technical threshold.


Fiber Optic Passive Component

PLC splitter and passive component

Fiber Optic Telecom Co., Ltd offers different types of high-quality splitters. These products are designed for long-term reliability, superior performance, and a wide range of usage in fiber optics including optical transmission, long haul, subscriber loop, fiber to the home, telecommunications, CATV, test equipment, optical fiber sensors, data communications and wide-area network.

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